Q: It seems like there's more and more talk about exercise for cancer survivors. Why?
A: With a growing number of cancer survivors, there's been a lot more studies on activity and survivorship over the past decade. Based on the research, the American College of Sports Medicine published evidence-based exercise guidelines for Cancer Survivors in 2010. The bottom line advice from these experts is, "avoid inactivity." First, cancer survivors are as vulnerable or more than others to heart disease and diabetes, and regular physical activity offers major benefits to prevent or manage both. Beyond that, a published review of 82 studies on physical activity and cancer survivors reported that though effects are not huge, regular physical activity improves fitness, muscular strength, weight management, overall activity level and quality of life, both during and especially after conclusion of treatment. Fatigue is commonly reported as a barrier to activity, yet overall studies show physical activity reduces fatigue, especially among breast and prostate cancer survivors and in the post-treatment phase of life. Survivors with extreme fatigue, however, which could signal anemia or other problems that need attention, should get this resolved before beginning exercise. This review of research found that quality of life, fatigue and depression improved most with moderate rather than light exercise and in supervised programs and sessions of 30 minutes or more in length. Significant strength-training (resistance type) exercise seems to offer particular benefits, especially for prostate cancer survivors undergoing androgen deprivation treatment. Breast cancer survivors with arm or shoulder problems related to treatment should get these treated before beginning a program of upper body exercise. Overall, cancer survivors are urged to gradually incorporate both aerobic and strength training into their lifestyles, but to do so wisely with input from their physician and, ideally, an exercise trainer with cancer-specific expertise. Survivors can check with their local cancer treatment center for suggestions, and with the local YMCA to see if they participate in the LiveSTRONG partnership with the Lance Armstrong Foundation.
Q: Is it true that almonds with the skins are more nutritious than the skinless blanched type?
A: Just one ounce of almonds with or without their skins provides more than half the vitamin E recommended for a whole day. They are also equal as good sources of magnesium, fiber and natural plant sterols that may help control blood cholesterol. The big difference is that the skins contain the majority of the flavonoid phytochemical content in almonds. Some research suggests that there may be synergy in which flavonoids in the skin and the vitamin E in the nut "meat" provide greater health benefits together than they would individually. Whole almonds, with the brown skin left on, are therefore a great choice, but if you are making a particular dish that you think will be better with slivered blanched almonds, you certainly are still getting plenty of good nutrition.
The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is the cancer charity that fosters research on the relationship of nutrition, physical activity and weight management to cancer risk, interprets the scientific literature and educates the public about the results. It has contributed more than $95 million for innovative research conducted at universities, hospitals and research centers across the country. AICR has published two landmark reports that interpret the accumulated research in the field, and is committed to a process of continuous review. AICR also provides a wide range of educational programs to help millions of Americans learn to make dietary changes for lower cancer risk. Its award-winning New American Plate program is presented in brochures, seminars and on its website, www.aicr.org. AICR is a member of the World Cancer Research Fund International.